# Important Terms

SIMPLIFY To write a fraction or expression in simplest form.
EVALUATE To find the value of a numerical or algebraic expression.
SOLVE To find an answer or solution.
NUMERATOR The top number of a fraction that tells how many parts of a whole are being considered.
DENOMINATOR The bottom number of a fraction that tells how many equal parts are in the whole.
RECIPROCAL One of two numbers whose product is 1. Also called multiplicative inverse.
INTEGERS The set of whole numbers and their opposites.
ABSOLUTE VALUE The distance of a number from zero on a number line.
OPPOSITE Numbers that are an equal distance from zero on a number line.
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS An expression that contains at least one variable.
EQUATION A mathematical sentence that shows that two expressions are equivalent.
VARIABLE A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change.
COEFFICIENT The number that is multiplied by the variable in an algebraic expression.
CONSTANT A value that does not change.
SOLUTION A value or values that make an equation, inequality, or statement true.
ISOLATE THE VARIABLE To get a variable alone on one side of an equation or inequality in or to solve the equation or inequality.
INVERSE OPERATION Operations that undo each other, addition and subtraction, or multiplication and division.
TERM The parts of an expression that are added or subtracted.
LIKE TERM Two or more terms that have the same variable raised to the same power.
ORDER OF OPERATIONS A rule for evaluating expressions. Parentheses, Exponents/Root, Multiplication/Division, Addition/Subtraction all from left to right.
EXPONENT The number that indicates how many times the base is used as a factor.
POWER A number produced by raising a base to an exponent.
COORDINATE PLANE A plane formed by the intersection of a horizontal
(x-axis) and vertical line (y-axis).
QUADRANT The x- and y-axes divide the coordinate plane into 4 regions. Each region is a quadrant.
ORIGIN The point where the x-axis and the y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane.
X-AXIS The horizontal axis on a coordinate plane.
Y-AXIS The vertical axis on a coordinate plane.
ORDERED PAIR A pair of numbers that can be used to locate a point on a coordinate plane.
RATIO A comparison of two quantities by division.
RATE A ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units.
UNIT RATE A rate in which the second quantity in the comparison is one unit.
EQUIVALENT Having the same value.
EQUIVALENT RATIO Ratios that name the same comparison.
PROPORTIONS An equation that states that two ratios are equivalent.
CROSS PRODUCTS The product of numbers on the diagonal when comparing two
ratios.
SIMILAR Figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size.
SCALE The ratio between two sets of measurements.
SCALE FACTOR The ratio used to enlarge or reduce similar figures.
UNIT CONVERSION FACTOR A fraction used in unit conversion in which the numerator and denominator represent the same amount but are in different units.
MEAN The sum of the items in a set of data divided by the number of items in the set, also average.
MEDIAN The middle number or the mean (average) of the two middle numbers in an ordered set of data.
MODE The number or numbers that occur most frequently in a set of data. There can be more than one or no modes.
RANGE The difference between the greatest and least values in a data set.
Difference
OUTLIER A value much greater or much less than the others in a data set.
STEM-AND-LEAF PLOT A graph used to organize and display data so that the frequencies can be compared.
HISTOGRAM A bar graph that shows the frequency of data within equal intervals. There are no spaces between the bars.
BAR GRAPH A graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to display data. It compares two or more things.
LINE GRAPH A graph that uses line segments to show how data changes over time.
CIRCLE GRAPH A graph that uses sectors of a circle to compare parts to the whole and parts to other parts. Numbers are in percent form.
DOUBLE-BAR GRAPH A bar graph that compares two related sets of data
DOUBLE-LINE GRAPH A line graph that shows how two related sets of data change over time.
PROBABILITY A number from 0 to 1 (or 0% to 100%) that describes how likely an event is to occur.
OUTCOME A possible result of a probability experiment.
FAVORABLE OUTCOME An outcome you are looking for when conducting an experiment.
FAIR When all outcomes of an experiment are equally likely, the experiment is said to be fair.
CERTAIN Sure to happen, having a probability of 100%(1).
EQUALLY LIKELY Outcomes that have the same probability.
IMPOSSIBLE Can never happen, having a probability of 0% (0).
EXPERIMENT In probability, any activity based on chance, such as tossing a
coin.
TRIAL A single repetition or observation of an experiment.
SAMPLE SIZE The number of all possible outcomes of an experiment.
SAMPLE SPACE All possible outcomes of an experiment.
FUNDAMENTAL COUNTING PRINCIPAL You can find the total number of ways that two or more separate tasks can happen by multiplying the number of ways each task happens separately. This determines the total number of possibilities.
THEORETICAL PROBABILITY What should happen in a fair trial. Think what should happen ‘in theory'.
EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY What happens in an actual experiment or real life. Creates a probability by actually doing an experiment. The more trials in an experiment, the more accurate an estimation of outcomes.
DEPENDENT EVENT Events for which the outcome of one event affects the probability of the other.
INDEPENDENT EVENT Events for which the outcome of one event does not affect the probability of the other.
PLANE A flat surface that extends forever in all directions.
POINT An exact location in space.
LINE A straight path that extends forever in opposite directions.
RAY A part of a line that starts at on endpoint and extends forever.
LINE SEGMENT A part of a line between two endpoints.
ANGLE A figure formed by two rays with a common endpoint called the vertex.
VERTEX The point where two sides intersect.
ACUTE ANGLE An angle that measures less than 90?.
OBTUSE ANGLE An angle that measures more than 90?.
RIGHT ANGLE An angle that measures 90?.
STRAIGHT ANGLE An angle that measures 180?.
COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES Two angles whose measures have a sum of 90?.
SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES Two angles whose measures have a sum of 180?.
VERTICAL ANGLES A pair of opposite congruent angles formed by intersection lines.
PERPENDICULAR LINES Lines that intersect to form right angles.
PARALLEL LINES Lines in a plane that do not intersect.
SKEW LINES Lines that lie in different planes that are neither parallel or intersecting.
CONGRUENT Having the same size and shape.
CORRESPONDING ANGLES A pair of angles formed by a transversal and two lines. Angles that are in the same relative location.
CORRESPONDING SIDES Matching sides of two or more polygons.
POLYGON A closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that intersect only at their endpoints.
REGULAR POLYGON A polygon with congruent sides and angles.
SQUARE A polygon with four right angles and four congruent sides.
RECTANGLE A polygon with four right angles.
PARALLELOGRAM A polygon with two pair of parallel sides.
RHOMBUS A polygon with four congruent sides.
TRAPEZOID A polygon with one pair of parallel sides.
RIGHT TRIANGLE A triangle with one right angle.
OBTUSE TRIANGLE A triangle with one obtuse angle.
ACUTE TRIANGLE A triangle with all acute angles.
SCALENE TRIANGLE A triangle with no congruent sides.
ISOSCELES TRIANGLE A triangle with two congruent sides.
EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE A triangle with all congruent sides.
CIRCLE The set of all points in a plane that are the same distance from a
given point called the center.
DIAMETER A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has endpoints of the circle, or the length of that segment.
RADIUS A line segment that begins on the center of the circle and ends on the circle.
CHORD A line segment with endpoints on a circle.
AREA The number of square units needed to cover a given surface.
PERIMETER The distance around a polygon.
CIRCUMFERENCE The distance around a circle.
BASE A side of a polygon.
VOLUME The number of cubic units needed to fill a given space.
RECTANGULAR PRISM A polyhedron whose bases are rectangles and whose other
faces are parallelograms.
TRIANGULAR PRISM A polyhedron whose bases are triangles and whose other faces are parallelograms.
CYLINDER A 3-dimensional figure with two parallel, congruent circle bases connected by a curved lateral surface.