# 60 8th grade vocabulary words

absolute value The distance of a number from zero; the positive value of a number
area Size a surface takes up measured in square units
area of the base Bottom face of a polyhedron which is multiplied by height to figure volume; denoted by capital B in formulas
biased sample Individuals or groups from the population are not represented in a sample
box and whisker plot A graph to show medians and distribution of data in quartiles
circumference Distance around a circle
commission A percentage of the money received from a total paid to the agent
compound probability Likelihood that 2 independent events will happen (probability of first times the probability of second)
corresponding parts Features situated in the same location in congruent figures
diameter Distance across a circle through the center
dilation Transformation that produces a figure of the same shape but different size
dimensions Measures of length, width, and height
discount A reduction in price usually based on a percentage
equivalent ratio Proportional relationship created by multiplying (scaling) by a form of one; cross products are equal
factor A whole numbers that can be divided exactly into a given number
formula Equation that states a rule for the relationship between certain quantities
function Relationship in which one value depends on the other (input & output)
hypotenuse Longest side of a right triangle which is opposite the right angle
inequality Not equal in size, amount, or value; greater or less than
integers Positive and negative whole numbers or zero
interest A charge for borrowed money generally a percentage of the amount still owed
inverse operation The opposite operation which will negate an operation
irrational numbers Numbers that cannot be expressed as fractions, terminating decimals, or repeating decimals
lateral surface area Sum of the areas of the side faces of a polyhedron
legs Sides that form the right angle of a right triangle
linear A relationship which has a constant rate of change; graphs as a straight line
markup An amount added to the cost price to determine the selling price
multiple Any number into which a given number will divide exactly
negative correlation As one variable increases, the other decreases; trends downward on a graph from left to right
origin The point (0,0) on a coordinate plane where the x-axis and the y-axis intersect
outlier Value in a data set that is noticeably higher or lower than the other values
percent A ratio that compares a number to 100
percent of change A ratio that compares the change in a quantity to the original amount
perfect square A number whose square root is a whole number
perimeter Distance around a closed shape
positive correlation As one variable increases, the other increases; trends upward on a graph from left to right
principal A sum of money lent or invested on which interest is paid
prism Polyhedron with 2 parallel, congruent polygon bases
probability Mathematical likelihood of an event happening
product The answer to a multiplication problem
proportional Having a constant ratio with another quantity
pyramid Polyhedron with 1 polygon base and a pointed top
Pythagorean Theorem Sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangles equals the square of the hypotenuse
Pythagorean Triple Set of three numbers that work in the Pythagorean Theorem formula
quadrants The four sections of a plane divided by an x and y axis
quotient The answer to a division problem
radius Distance from the center of a circle to any point on the circle
random sample Sample in which each individual or object has an equal chance of being selected
rational numbers Numbers that can be expressed as terminating or repeating decimals
reciprocal Fraction flipped upside down; reciprocals multiply to 1
sample space Set of all possible outcomes
scale factor Ratio of measurements of similar figures to describe the magnification (new/old)
scatterplot graph with points plotted to show a relationship between two variables
scientific notaiton A condensed way of writing very large or small numbers using powers of ten
similar A proportional figure with the same shape, but different size
square root One of the two equal factors of a number
surface area Sum of the areas of the faces of a geometric solid (square units)
unit rate A rate with a denominator of one
Venn diagram Circles to show the relationship between sets
volume Amount of space a geometric solid takes up (cubic units)